Nouns – Spoken English Online Training, Tips, Tricks, Spoken English Skills

NOUNS

Kinds and function

There are four kinds of nouns in English :
Common nouns : dog, man, table
Proper  nouns : India, Delhi, Mrs, Murli, Pavan
Abstract nouns:beauty, charity, courage, fear, joy
Collective nouns:crowd, flock, group, swarm, team

A noun can function as:
The subject of a verb be,: Pavan arrived
The complement of the vebs be, become, seem: Pavan is an actor
The object of a verb: I saw to pavan
The object of a preposition: I spoke to pavan
A noun can also be in the possessive case: Pavan’s books.

Gender
masculine:men, boys and male animals (pronoun he/they)
Feminine:women, girls and female animals(pronoun she/they)
Neuter:inanimate things, animals whose sex we don’t know and sometimes babies whose sex we don’t know(pronoun it/they)
Exceptions:ships and sometimes cars and others vehicels when regarded with affection or respect are considered feminine.Countries when refrred to by name are also normally considered feminine.
The ship struck an iceberg, which tore a huge hole in her side.
Scotland lost many of her bravest men in two great rebellions.

Personal mascline / feminine nouns

Different forms :
boy, girl                     gentleman, lady        son, daughter
bachelor, spinster    husband,wife           uncle, aunt
bridegroom, bride    man, woman             widower, widow
fater, moter               nephew, niece

Main exceptions
Baby            infant            relative
child            parent          spouse
cousine       relation        teenager

duke, duchess        king, queen        princess
earl, countess         lord, lady

the majority of personal nouns have the same form:
artist               cook                driver        guide
assistent        dancer            doctor        etc.

Main exceptions:
Actor, actress                           host, hostess
conducter, counductress       manager, manageress
heir, heiress                            steward, stewardess
hero, heroine                          waiter, waitress

Also salesman, saleswomen etc., but sometimes-person is used instead of man, -women:salesperson, spokesperson.

Domestic animals and many of the larger wild animals have different forms:
bull, cow            duck, drake         ram, ewe         stallion, mare
cock, hen           gander, goose     stag, doe         tiger, tigress
dog, bitch          lion, lioness

Others have the same form.

Plurals

The plural of a noun is usully made by adding (s) to the singular:
day, days    dog, dogs    house, houses
(s)is pronounced/s/after a p,k or f sound.otherwise it is prounced/z/.
When s is placed afterce, ge, seorze an extra syllable (/iz/) is added to thespoken world.

Other plural forms

Nouns ending in o or ch,sh,ssorx form their plural by adding es:
tomato, tomatoes        brush, brushes        box, boxes
church, churches        kiss, kisses

But words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in o add s only:
dynamo, dynamos        kimono, kimonos        piano, pianos
kilo, kilos                        photo, photos            soprano, sopranos

hen es is placed after ch,sh,ssorx an extra syllable(IZ)is added to the spoken word.

Nouns ending in y following a consonant form theit plural by dropping the y and adding ies:
baby,babies    country,countries    fly,flies    lady,ladies

Nouns ending in y foiiowing a vowel form their plural by adding s:
boy, boys    day, days        donkey, donkeys    guy, guys

Tweleve nouns ending in f or fe drop the  f or fe and add ves.these nouns are calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loafself, thief, wife, wolf :

loaf, loaves    wife, wives    wolf, wolves    etc.

The nouns hoof, scarf and ; wharf take either s or ves in the plural:

hoofs or hooves        scarfs or scarves    wharfs or wharves

Other words ending in f or fe add s in the ordinary way:
cliff,cliffs handkerchiefs safe,safes

A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change:
foot,feet           louse,lice            mouse,mice    woman,women
goose,geese    man,men            tooth,teeth
The plurals of child and ox are children,oxen