Kinds and function
There are four kinds of nouns in English :
Common nouns : dog, man, table
Proper nouns : India, Delhi, Mrs, Murli, Pavan
Abstract nouns:beauty, charity, courage, fear, joy
Collective nouns:crowd, flock, group, swarm, team
A noun can function as:
The subject of a verb be,: Pavan arrived
The complement of the vebs be, become, seem: Pavan is an actor
The object of a verb: I saw to pavan
The object of a preposition: I spoke to pavan
A noun can also be in the possessive case: Pavan’s books.
masculine:men, boys and male animals (pronoun he/they)
Feminine:women, girls and female animals(pronoun she/they)
Neuter:inanimate things, animals whose sex we don’t know and sometimes babies whose sex we don’t know(pronoun it/they)
Exceptions:ships and sometimes cars and others vehicels when regarded with affection or respect are considered feminine.Countries when refrred to by name are also normally considered feminine.
The ship struck an iceberg, which tore a huge hole in her side.
Scotland lost many of her bravest men in two great rebellions.
Personal mascline / feminine nouns
Different forms :
boy, girl gentleman, lady son, daughter
bachelor, spinster husband,wife uncle, aunt
bridegroom, bride man, woman widower, widow
fater, moter nephew, niece
Baby infant relative
child parent spouse
cousine relation teenager
duke, duchess king, queen princess
earl, countess lord, lady
the majority of personal nouns have the same form:
artist cook driver guide
assistent dancer doctor etc.
Actor, actress host, hostess
conducter, counductress manager, manageress
heir, heiress steward, stewardess
hero, heroine waiter, waitress
Also salesman, saleswomen etc., but sometimes-person is used instead of man, -women:salesperson, spokesperson.
Domestic animals and many of the larger wild animals have different forms:
bull, cow duck, drake ram, ewe stallion, mare
cock, hen gander, goose stag, doe tiger, tigress
dog, bitch lion, lioness
Others have the same form.
The plural of a noun is usully made by adding (s) to the singular:
day, days dog, dogs house, houses
(s)is pronounced/s/after a p,k or f sound.otherwise it is prounced/z/.
When s is placed afterce, ge, seorze an extra syllable (/iz/) is added to thespoken world.
Other plural forms
Nouns ending in o or ch,sh,ssorx form their plural by adding es:
tomato, tomatoes brush, brushes box, boxes
church, churches kiss, kisses
But words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in o add s only:
dynamo, dynamos kimono, kimonos piano, pianos
kilo, kilos photo, photos soprano, sopranos
hen es is placed after ch,sh,ssorx an extra syllable(IZ)is added to the spoken word.
Nouns ending in y following a consonant form theit plural by dropping the y and adding ies:
baby,babies country,countries fly,flies lady,ladies
Nouns ending in y foiiowing a vowel form their plural by adding s:
boy, boys day, days donkey, donkeys guy, guys
Tweleve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and add ves.these nouns are calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loafself, thief, wife, wolf :
loaf, loaves wife, wives wolf, wolves etc.
The nouns hoof, scarf and ; wharf take either s or ves in the plural:
hoofs or hooves scarfs or scarves wharfs or wharves
Other words ending in f or fe add s in the ordinary way:
cliff,cliffs handkerchiefs safe,safes
A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change:
foot,feet louse,lice mouse,mice woman,women
goose,geese man,men tooth,teeth
The plurals of child and ox are children,oxen