How to create CSS Box Models | Examples | Videos

The CSS Box Model :

  • All HTML elements can be considered as boxes. In CSS, the term “box model” is used when talking about design and layout.
  • The CSS box model is essentially a box that wraps around HTML elements, and it consists of: margins, borders, padding, and the actual content.
  • The box model allows us to add a border around elements, and to define space between elements.

The image below illustrates the box model:

Explanation of the different parts:

  • Content – The content of the box, where text and images appear
  • Padding – Clears an area around the content. The padding is transparent
  • Border – A border that goes around the padding and content
  • Margin – Clears an area outside the border. The margin is transparent

Example :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
div {
background-color: lightgrey;
width: 300px;
padding: 25px;
border: 25px solid navy;
margin: 25px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<div>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.</div>

</body>
</html>

Width and Height of an Element :

  • In order to set the width and height of an element correctly in all browsers, you need to know how the box model works.

Example :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
div {
width: 320px;
padding: 10px;
border: 5px solid gray;
margin: 0;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<img src="klematis4_big.jpg" width="350" height="263" alt="Klematis">
<div>The picture above is 350px wide. The total width of this element is also 350px.</div>

</body>
</html>

Let’s do the math:
320px (width)
+ 20px (left + right padding)
+ 10px (left + right border)
+ 0px (left + right margin)
= 350px

The total width of an element should be calculated like this:

  • Total element width = width + left padding + right padding + left border + right border + left margin + right margin
  • The total height of an element should be calculated like this:
  • Total element height = height + top padding + bottom padding + top border + bottom border + top margin + bottom margin

Browsers Compatibility Issue :

  • Internet Explorer 8 and earlier versions, include padding and border in the width property.
  • To fix this problem, add a <!DOCTYPE html> to the HTML page.

Example : 1

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
div {
background-color: lightblue;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<div>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.</div>

</body>
</html>

Example :2

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
div {
background-color: lightblue;
width: 200px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<div>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.</div>

</body>
</html>

Example : 3

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
div {
background-color: lightblue;
width: 200px;
padding: 25px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<div>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.</div>

</body>
</html>

Example : 4

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
div {
background-color: lightblue;
width: 200px;
padding: 25px;
border: 25px solid navy;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<div>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.</div>

</body>
</html>

How to create simple CSS box in HTML. :